If The Ben. Frank. Parkway Were A Pizza, It’d Be Awfully Plain

The Free Library to the left, Family Court Building to the right, with the section of the Vine Street Expressway to be capped in the foreground | Photo: Hidden City Daily

For some fifty years, the gospel of Jane Jacobs has been playing like a drumbeat in our ears. Create density, mix uses, activate the urban landscape (and make us better humans)! Now, a pastor, Eric Jacobsen, a member of the Congress for the New Urbanism, has joined the chorus with his second book on Christianity and urban design, The Space Between: A Christian Engagement with the Built Environment (Baker Academic Press, 2012). “A city is like a pizza, and a neighborhood is like a slice of pizza,” he writes. “Just as a slice of pizza should contain all the ingredients of the pizza, each neighborhood should contain all the things we enjoy and value about the city: homes, coffee shops, ball fields, churches, grocery stores, and so on. The suburban experiment that was so influential in the 20th century involved dividing up the functions of the city into different zones: housing, shopping, office, recreation. This works about as well as eating the elements of your pizza in different courses: you’re still getting the same nutritional value, but you’ve lost the joy of your pizza.”

Jacobsen isn’t presenting anything new, certainly. There are any number of books on my shelf that say the same thing. But his participation in the conversation points up the difficulty in altering patterns of investment and corporate behavior. Institutional investors, real estate developers, insurance companies, and corporate decision makers are enmeshed in a system that penalizes the pizza.

And indeed, those of us who want some pizza have to keep demanding it. Even amidst Philadelphia’s traditional streetscape the Modernist insistence on segregating land uses endures. Given the city’s institutional-based economy–with eds and meds and cultural uses taking up more and more physical space–single-use ghettos prevail. Despite some attempt at ground floor retail around the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, for example, a booming sterile city within a city is emerging.

The separation of uses is easy for us to criticize in this post-industrial era, but it isn’t always wrong (as Alex Vuocolo reported last week, the people who live near the port or I-95 in Port Richmond might attest to that). And moreover, big cities allow for hierarchies of land uses. Imagine if every district of the city had an even mixture of uses. Pizza would get old pretty quick.

Still, the most confounding of Philadelphia’s single-use districts is the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, a veritable museum ghetto that often becomes desolate at night. With three new institutional projects in the works–the Mormon cathedral, a proposed Holocaust museum, and the fledgling Envision Peace Museum–the Parkway appears to be condemned to sour monotony.

The Granary project under construction, 20th and Callowhill Sts. | Photo: Hidden City Daily

Or is it? The Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation has just issued a request for qualifications to developers for the repurposing of the Family Court Building on Logan Square. A boutique hotel there, as some envision, would create a new dimension to the space. Also, a $100 million Whole Foods supermarket and apartment complex appears to be in the works at 22nd Street. The Granary, with its traditional urban design, will bring residential and retail uses to the edge of the Parkway.

City, Center City District, and Fairmount Park officials, together with the State of Pennsylvania and the Pew Charitable Trusts, have been attempting to augment the single use reality; over the past decade they’ve implemented a number of improvements along the Parkway to animate it and make it more pedestrian friendly. These projects have been extensive, leaving us with better pedestrian crossings, bike lanes, lighting, street trees, parks and fountains, cafes, and programmable spaces such as Sister Cities Park and the future Paine’s Park. And more improvements are coming next year to the 1600 and 1700 blocks.

In addition, officials in the City’s Department of Parks and Recreation have launched an “action plan,” which already went through a community engagement process and will be released in the coming months, to identify projects that can be implemented in the next three years to help better connect the Parkway to surrounding neighborhoods.

These interventions will be “low investment” but are meant to have “high impact,” meaning they’ll make the Parkway’s public realm livelier and more attractive on the cheap. While the details of the plan have yet to emerge, the thinking exploits some of the successes of The Porch at 30th Street Station, so expect even more pop-up cafes in strategic places, increased recreational opportunities, and design features such as gateways and exemplary landscapes.

Looking east from 22nd St. over the Vine Street Expressway | Photo: Hidden City Daily

While these projects old and new make a hostile space more inviting, they won’t fundamentally change the pattern of land use in a way that would satisfy Jane Jacobs, Pastor Jacobsen, or real estate economists. For that to happen, we need to plan for more intense uses at the edges. And to do that–on the southern edge at least–we need to cap the Vine Street Expressway between 20th and 22nd (a partial cap is already in the works in front of the Free Library at 20th Street). The cap between 20th and 22nd–the single most effective and lucrative investment to make–would create immediately valuable land for ambitious development linking Center City to the Parkway.

While officials have given up on fundamentally altering Eakins Oval in front of the Art Museum–it is only open space large enough for major festivals and stages–the triangle to its immediate north (between 23rd and Spring Garden Streets and Kelly Drive) could be developed in a way that draws on the energy of the adjacent Fairmount neighborhood.

Triangle bounded by Spring Garden Street, Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Art Museum Drive | Photo: Hidden City Daily

The northern edge will also benefit from the development of the City Branch for transit or park uses. But while that’s unlikely to have immediate impact, SEPTA could consider rerouting buses so that they more adequately and intentionally serve the Parkway. At present, no bus routes traverse the Parkway, a policy that must have been made by devilish Modernists in the anti-urban 1950s.

Article originally appeared on Hidden City Philadelphia


TOD Is Here; Now Let’s Make It Really Work For Us

This article originally appeared on Hidden City Philadelphia.

Hello TOD, Watcha Knowin?

Damen El stop, Chicago | Image: Steve Vance

In Chicago’s Wicker Park neighborhood just northwest of downtown, where Midwest hipsters collide with upwardly mobile YPs, El stops are the puncture points of some of the most active, vibrant streets and most densely built neighborhood corners in the city.

The Damen stop in particular is so successful that nearby the Flat Iron Building and Milwaukee Avenue have come to characterize Wicker Park as an urban regional arts destination. Thanks in large part to this intensifying urban pattern, what planners call transit oriented development, a place was born and a neighborhood defined.

But in Philly’s rapid transit paradigm, the Damens of the world are the exceptions to the rule. Outside of Center City and University City, development around Philly’s high volume transit stations is too often characterized by drive-thrus, gas stations, and parking lots. This is transit under-development.

Looking through the graffiti, Girard El stop | Photo: Theresa Stigale

One step off any of the three El stops that serve the Northern Liberties and Fishtown, roughly comparable places to Wicker Park, and you’re unlikely to encounter iconic, neighborhood defining buildings or vibrant shopping streets. Instead, you’ll get a drive-thru McDonald’s, a one-story Deal$, or a downright anti-urban Delilah’s. In contrast to Damen, there are few resulting attributes that contribute a sense of place and neighborhood identity (aside from incoherence), and, critically, reduced interest in transit.

This leaves us with a rather striking under-utilization of prime urban real estate in high demand areas that could be filled to the brim with potential transit riders and neighborhood services.

All This is About to Change

Wayne Junction station renovation, part of a future Wayne Junction TOD overlay | Photo: Hidden City Daily

Philly’s urban planners are a smart bunch; they understand the city’s land utilization-mass transit mismatch like Planning 101 students know Jane Jacob’s four principles to healthy cities. Armed with this recognition, for the first time, they have codified TOD overlay districts as part of the City’s brand new zoning code. Through Philadelphia 2035 they hope to officially put TOD on the map.

Googling the location of these districts won’t do you any good–they haven’t been mapped yet. According to Jennifer Barr and Natalie Shieh, staff planners of theCity Planning Commission, they will be defined through Philadelphia 2035’s district planning process which is ongoing.

True, a number of district plans have already been completed, but Barr says TOD has yet to be an appropriate recommendation in those plans. But, TOD fanatics, don’t fret, she says that “the current Central District Plan will include recommended sites.”

The City is banking on overlays to assist in establishing a more coherent public realm in and around transit stops. This means allowing higher density development, reducing parking requirements, and encouraging a higher mix of uses right when you hop off the train.

Paseo Verde rising next to Temple University station | Photo: Theresa Stigale

At 9th and Berks, just northwest of the Northern Liberties, the non-profit APM is bringing 120 units of housing, retail, office space (and reduced parking) to a parcel immediately adjacent to the Temple University Regional Rail station, SEPTA’s fourth busiest.

In the proposed overlays, city planners envision scaling up from a single Paseo Verde kind of development to ultimately create what can become an entire transit-oriented neighborhood.

To accomplish this, a lot of up-front work needs to happen. This is where the district planning process comes in. “Ideally, as part of the district planning process, the community, in conjunction with the City Planning staff, will define ideal places for TOD and create a vision for what it could look like,” explains Barr who is currently working on the Central District Plan. “Then, City Council will adopt what the community wants, which will effectively make the overlay the law of that land.”

“We’re looking for the TOD overlay districts to make a big impact, so we’re going to place them in high demand areas that are ripe for redevelopment and haven’t realized their potential,” explains Barr.

What’s Missing

Like the base zoning, the new TOD overlays will be law-binding, adding or subtracting additional regulation where necessary. This means that around specified transit stops it will be perfectly legal, and encouraged, to build buildings a bit taller, increase use diversity and reduce parking requirements.

Photo: Theresa Stigale

What is clear from the new code is that the City’s planners understand the advantages of urban density, an assumption indicated by their push for TOD. What gives their push a little less umph is the lack of a plan to create open spaces and parks in conjunction with future transit-oriented developments.

Parks near density thrive–they are better cared for and are utilized by a wider range of people. Rittenhouse Square provides a clear example of this, but probably isn’t what TOD open space would look like. Think transit plazas, squares, civic greens, and pocket parks as appropriate typologies.

The advantages of open space near transit are clear: a well designed open space system developed in conjunction with transit-oriented development catalyzes pedestrian development, creating a healthy neighborhood full of transit riders with strong sense of place characteristics and higher property values to boot.

Paseo Verde | Image: WRT

The best way to go about ensuring open space creation amongst TOD is through the planning process, something the City Planning staff seems hesitant to do; they have expressed concern about such efforts placing too much restriction on developers. “The TOD visioning process won’t result in codifying placement of open space, especially on existing private land,” says Barr.

But DC Is Doing It…

Chicago does well with utilizing its current built environment, but when it comes to developing open space within newly built transit-oriented development, Washington DC is a clear leader. DC officials have been able to take lofty planning and design talk about the importance of open space in TOD and make it reality. The way they’ve gone about this has varied and so have the results.

Columbia Heights TOD, Washington, DC | Photo: Whiteknuckled, Flickr

In Columbia Heights, situated along Metro’s Green Line just west of Howard University, the highly gentrifying neighborhood boasts one of DC’s proudest examples of TOD. Flush with convenient services, restaurants and housing, the area immediately adjacent to the metro stop also features highly utilized transit plazas and a public square. It’s exactly what planners envision when they talk TOD.

According to Dan Emerine, urban planner with the DC Office of Planning, the reason why Columbia Heights is so picture perfect is because the City owned a significant amount of land around the stop and could appropriately plan its design and implementation.

Other TODs haven’t been so lucky. When a metro station opened in the NOMA (North of Massachusetts Avenue) neighborhood, private development quickly followed suit, but without a plan to guide its implementation. “The private development is what we wanted,” says Emerine, “but no open space was created.” City planners are now trying to piecemeal together open space left over from the private development.

A third example is familiar-sounding enough. Just north of NOMA, land around the Brookland stop along the Red Line has long been underutilized. Seeing development pressures increase in the area, City planners developed a “small area plan” for the stop. Similar to what the district plans are doing for Philly’s neighborhoods and its TOD process, Emerine explains that SAPs “provide guidance on growth and development at the neighborhood level, and are created through a bottom-up, collaborative process with stakeholders.”

Since the Plan’s approval, development and open space creation has followed. “Thanks to the SAP acting as a guide, three Planned Unit Developments have been approved in the area around the station,” explains Emerine.

No Means NOMA

Temple University station, Paseo Verde | Photo: Theresa Stigale

Philly is one step ahead of DC: through the district planning process, all TOD overlays will receive treatment similar to what the small area plan gave the Brookland metro stop.

To avoid becoming NOMA, that is, all development, no open space, Philly needs to encourage open space in conjunction with transit-oriented development, something Emerine says must initially happen during the visioning process.

He believes there are a number of ways to go about doing this without being overly restrictive. “Ideally, you identify places where you want open space to be created and then incentivize the creation of it,” he says. “For years, cities have successfully implemented such rules, exchanging additional building stories or other development perks for the creation of open space.”

For the DC Planning staff, the trick has been making sure open space is appropriately designed, and not haphazardly placed in nonsensical ways. “Over time, we’ve added more stringent rules to specify exactly what we want. Otherwise, you have random pieces of open space that don’t achieve placemaking capabilities.”

Girard El Station | Photo: Theresa Stigale

The new Philly zoning code does feature similar regulations for Center City and University City, but doesn’t seem willing to include open space as part of the TOD overlays. Developers probably won’t be either–without incentives developers won’t prioritize open space, likely treating it as a threat to already narrow profit margins.

Considering their desire to recommend TOD overlays only in places where a significant difference can be made, Philly planners have an opportunity to turn significant development pressure into strong public projects that enhance the public sphere.

Such a tack would strongly impact places like the Spring Garden and Girard stations, areas in high demand and likely to continue redeveloping with or without the help of TOD overlays. To ensure this development occurs the way planners want it, an insistence on TOD with integrated open space is doubly critical.

Prioritizing Preservation in Philly’s New Land Bank

The Divine Lorraine Hotel, Philly’s most famous abandoned building


This article originally appeared on Flying Kite on the October 2, 2012

Geographically and culturally, there isn’t much debate about Philly’s allegiance: this is the East Coast.  As married to this virtue as Philadelphians are, some of the City’s biggest, most glaring urban issues, namely land vacancy and property neglect, are more in line with cities along a different body of water – the Great Lakes – the nation’s well known and oft derided Rust Belt.

When you hear statistics like 40,000 vacant parcels, Detroit’s infamous urban prairies or Cleveland’s fight against foreclosure might be the assumed topic of conversation.  In actuality, this is a Philadelphia reality, and it’s a big deal: the City’s vacant land problem (which many believe is closer to 60,000 parcels) accounts for $20 million a year in maintenance costs and an overall loss of $70 million to city and school district coffers.

Bank On It
It doesn’t have to be harped on the city and countless neighborhood associations know the problem all too well.  The Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority’s‘Front Door’ initiative and more recently, the proposed Land Banking legislation circulating City Council, aim to create a more streamlined, less bureaucratic process for redevelopment of vacant land while empowering neighborhoods to strategize holdings and plan the when, where and what of development. The land bank will be especially powerful – it is an economic development tool used by over 75 different communities across the country, mostly in the Rust Belt.  The gist behind a land bank is it allows cities to acquire or group parcels in a strategic, clear and concise manner, in an effort to facilitate larger and more attractive development opportunities.

But land banking really flexes its muscle by allowing municipalities to acquire real property or interests and discharge liens and other claims, charges or fines in the process.  In Philly – this is especially important as private property tax delinquency is seen as a major obstacle to neighborhood redevelopment.

Philly’s current land banking bill (Bill No. 120052) is backed by councilmember Maria Quinones-Sanchez, who hails from a North Philly district where vacancy and neglect are especially prevalent.  According to Sanchez, the bill has received positive reaction from the local urban planning community and City officials alike, but seeing as the bill is currently in Committee, it will likely go through a series of amendments in the ensuing months.

Don’t let that deter the land bank enthusiasts out there – Sanchez hopes to finalize the legislation this year, but does note its passage is somewhat dependent on a similar initiative at the state level.  That bill will give Philly and other cities across Pennsylvania a number of powers necessary to robustly implement land banks.

Letting Neighborhoods Decide Their Fate  
Come this fall, as the bill goes through the laborious legislative process, expect amendments geared towards increasing neighborhood control over land banked properties.  That is, if Marcus Presley and the Campaign to Take Back Vacant Land get their way.  According to Presley, the group whole heartedly supports the bill, but believes its current form falls short of giving neighborhoods access to vacant parcels in their boundaries and ultimately deciding their fate.  He believes this bottom-up approach to planning is necessary for Philly’s long-term neighborhood sustainability, housing affordability and overall equity, especially in places seeing displacement by means of gentrification.

If history has taught us anything, Presley and his group are on to something; American cities still suffer from long lasting scars of top-down urban renewal policies of the mid-20th century.  At a time when suburbs were en vogue and cities were suffering from neglect, these policies were built off the notion that blight should be cured by means of massive demolition, which would in turn clear the way for reinvestment and revitalization.

What we now know is these policies did the exact opposite – neighborhoods that saw wholesale demolition of traditional urban fabrics have only saw problems of neglect and poverty mount, while areas preserved and rehabilitated have since flourished.  Today, when flipping through your grandparent’s photos of where they grew up, often in urban neighborhoods that used to be, places that used to flourish, and upon realizing these same places are now large highways, public housing projects, or vacant lots, you probably ask yourself, “What were they thinking?”

Fearing Urban Renewal Part II
You are not alone – the entire New Urbanism movement was born out of a desire to re-create what was demolished years ago.  But as land banks have become increasingly popular economic development tools over recent years, and the tantalizing possibilities of land acquisition through state and federal grants that can come with them, urban renewal amnesia seems to be setting in.

In a shocking display of devaluing the economic importance of old buildings, a number of civic leaders are once again using the wrecking ball to spend their grant monies and fight blight.  Seen as the easy solution and under pressure to do something quick, cities are opting for the lazy approach to economic development, targeting properties in land banks where a lack of preservation protections makes them the lowest hanging fruit on the economic development vine.

The hardest hit areas are some of the usual suspects dotting the Rust Belt.  In Cincinnati, the City is using state and county grants to launch an $11.1 million demolition and redevelopment program aimed at land bank properties.  In Detroit, the city is implementing a program to demolish up to 10,000 properties in the coming years.  And in Toledo, city officials are also pursuing massive demolition efforts of its land banked properties.

Preserve or Perish
Cincinnati preservationist Paul Wilham knows all too well what policies of ‘blight equals bulldozer’ can do to city neighborhoods.  Lately, he’s had a firsthand account of how Cincinnati is directing this mentality towards its land bank properties.  And according to him, it’s not pretty: thanks to federal funds for the foreclosure crisis, the city plans to demolish up to 900 homes in its land bank by 2013.

Wilham is an avid believer in the positive effects of preservation of existing buildings on economic development and neighborhood turnaround.  And with good reason: according to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, studies have shown time and again that building rehabilitation far outperforms new construction in creating economic activity, and that per capita, preservation is one of the highest job-generating economic development tools available.

In a time of scarce resources, officials need to be particularly cognizant of how to spend public funds.  When deciding between demolition and rehabilitation, dollar for dollar, preservation wins out.  In 2008, for example, approximately $1.128 billion in federal tax credits aimed at preservation stimulated private investment totaling $5.64 billion.

Unfortunately, Wilham isn’t sure if civic leaders in Cincinnati and other cities are paying attention to these facts, ignoring the lessons from 20th Century urban renewal policies.“We can look at the history of urban renewal, the idea that if we clear land the developers will come,” says Wilham. “It didn’t work then and it won’t work now.”

Make Philly’s Land Bank Stronger
Wilham believes potential demolitions in Philadelphia could be avoided if the new land bank legislation includes preservation language protecting existing buildings.  He believes something like Indiana Landmark’s FLIP program, which performs basic stabilization work on properties and matches them up with buyers at reduced rates, should coincide with any land banking bill.  He also advocates that adding a ‘standard of review’ for all buildings in a land bank will also help ensure demolition is seen as a last resort.

StatewidePreservation Pennsylvania is on board with these types of initiatives, recently releasing a set of policy recommendations aimed at strengthening the powers of preservation across the state.  Notable recommendations that can be applied to Philly’s land bank bill include the belief that “preservation should be embedded in future planning and economic development efforts through the state, counties and municipalities.”

Locally, Sanchez has indicated her preference for preserving and repurposing buildings in the future land bank, as she believes this is the most sustainable approach to the physical aspects of neighborhood redevelopment.  But she is hesitant to place overly burdensome regulations in the bill that might scare away potential investors.

“It really is a tightrope we have to walk with this issue,” she explains.

From Here On Out
As the land bank bill passes through committees and hearing processes and amendments are added or subtracted, there is no doubt that once complete, the landscape of vacant land in Philly will be forever changed.  At stake are blocks and blocks of beautiful row houses and abandoned warehouses in North, South and West Philly, buildings full of so much character that would make Rust belt counterparts in the Midwest green with envy.

Addressing the needs of all sides is essential to the land bank’s future success as an economic development tool.  At the forefront are neighborhood groups wanting more control of their future, a need to ensure building preservation is paramount, all while keeping the bill developer/investor friendly.  While Sanchez is right, it’s an awfully tight rope to walk, it’s an essential approach to ensure the land bank has any sort of relevance in tackling the city’s very real, and very troubling vacant land and tax delinquency problems.

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A Place’s Urban Design Represents Its Community Values

Poor urban design choices happen all the time.  When it comes to new development, what might sound like common sense (creating active, vibrant, storefronts along commercial corridors and attractive streetscapes along residential ones) too often does not come to fruition.  Just ask residents of Philly’s Northern Liberties, a neighborhood known for its high profile, successful development schemes (i.e. Tower Investments’ the Piazza at Schmidt’s) but increasingly for its unfortunate urban design outcomes that threaten neighborhood identity.

There are few things that irk planners and urban designers more than woefully implemented urban designs, no matter where they occur.  In Northern Liberties, none are more obvious than the Family Dollar store that recently opened underneath the Superfresh at 2nd and Girard in another one of Tower’s large redevelopment projects.

Read More Here…

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ANALYSIS: Philly’s Center City residential market prospers, but at what price?

There is no doubt that Center City is going through growing pains again as it looks to add well over 1,000 residential units in high-rise towers over the short term.  Much of these have thus far been in new construction buildings in the Market West sub-neighborhood of Center City.  But more recently, rehabs have become economically viable, resulting in 2040 Market Street and 1616 Walnut Streetbeing transformed from Class B and C office space into high-end apartments.

And who doesn’t appreciate a great re-use – it is certainly more economically, physically, and environmentally sustainable than tearing down an old structure and simply starting over.  But as more and more high-end residential uses flood Center City, often replacing older office uses in its wake, is diversity being squashed to make way for an increasingly homogenous neighborhood that only caters to high-end users?

Suburban Development An Economic Loser For All Cities

The Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, now better known as The Navy Yard, was the first naval shipyard in the United States and more recently has become one of the biggest adaptive re-use projects in the country.  After the U.S. Navy reduced its activities in the early 1990s and ended most by 1995, a large portion of the yard was left abandoned and created a large eyesore along Philly’s southern edge.  But due to the site’s size, city planners saw an opportunity and soon got to work creating a new master plan for the area with the goal of transforming the yard back into something economically viable.

Over the past few years, with the help of large tax incentives, the early pieces of the master plan have taken shape. Large companies like Urban Outfitters have moved their headquarters to the campus, transforming previously unused buildings into economically viable parcels.  What great stories the Navy Yard can now tell: a new waterfront community is developing, creative adaptive reuse has taken hold, and sustainable, green building and neighborhood techniques have become the norm.   While these are no doubt positive narratives for Philadelphia to tout, it isn’t hard to argue that the overall effect of this success has actually been a negative for the local economy of Philadelphia and specifically Center City.


Density the Keystone to Philly’s Vitality

Spread Bagelry, the popular Montreal-style bagel eatery, is spreading its wings (pun intended) and opening a bakery across the street at 269 S. 20th Street in the former Brown Betty Peitite space.  In recent weeks, a ‘Coming Soon’ sign has appeared and the name of the new bakery has been revealed: Spread Bake Shop.  The new Spread will specialize in muffins, biscotti, scones, baked pies, and loose bagels for those who don’t want to stumble across the street for their fix.   While high-rise projects are exciting, developments such as these should not be taken lightly as they are a sign of a neighborhood’s enduring vitality – small shops such as Spread are entirely dependent on a healthy amount of foot traffic and neighborhood density to exist and they add to the quality of life for nearby residents.

While Spread’s opening is a good sign for Rittenhouse’s current health as a neighborhood, a number of existing regulations threaten its viability long term.  According to the most recent State of Center City report, Rittenhouse is one of the slowest-growth neighborhoods in Center City, adding 8.3% to its population between 2000 and 2010.  On top of this, the demographic trend of the neighborhood since 1990 shows growth slowing.  As Rittenhouse has become more and more in demand, empty lots have been built upon, rents have risen, and the wealthy have converted multi-family townhomes into single family residences.  On top of this, overly-restrictive regulations cap new development heights at 45 feet for a large majority of the neighborhood.  If these issues are left unfettered and regulations left in place, Rittenhouse will max out in population and eventually dedensify and lose the vibrancy it currently enjoy.  Shops like Spread and other will no longer be able to rely on constant foot traffic, close up shop, and the neighborhood will become as homogenous in use as it is in income level.


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